Collection History

The New York Public Library possesses one of the largest and finest collections of medieval and Renaissance illuminated manuscripts in North America, yet its manuscript holdings are scarcely known to scholars, much less to a wide public audience. Medieval and Renaissance illuminated manuscripts are vehicles of the collective memory of western European culture, and provide a material connection between the scribes, illuminators, and patrons who produced these works and the audiences who view them today.

The works represent diverse genres, from Bibles and missals to romance literature and science texts. Dating from the turn of the 10th century until well into the period of the Renaissance, these works give vivid testimony to the creative impulses of the often nameless craftsmen who continually discovered new ways of animating the contents of hand-produced books through inventive and sometimes exuberant manipulations of all the elements of the book: form and format, layout, script, decoration, illustration, and binding.

Drawn from the Library's Spencer Collection and the Manuscripts and Archives Division, these works focus on the 9th through the 16th centuries -- seven hundred years of profound political, ecclesiastical, social, and intellectual change in Western Europe and the world. Among these rare items are a 10th-century Ottonian manuscript, with its imitation of Byzantine textile with gold decoration; the Towneley Lectionary, illuminated by Giulio Clovio (once praised as the "Michelangelo of small works"), which originated in Rome and probably belonged to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese; and a late 15th-century Book of Hours, which represents the leading style of illumination from Besançon, one of the French Regional Schools.


"The Digital Scriptorium" originated in the mid-1990s as an image database, intended to unite scattered resources from many institutions into an international tool for teaching and scholarly research. NYPL curators have augmented the Digital Scriptorium's primary documentation of NYPL's contribution of 259 manuscript parts with images of the works' most significant illuminations. Some works in this digital presentation also appeared in the exhibition, "The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at The New York Public Library," held October 21, 2005 - February 12, 2006 in the Library's D. Samuel and Jeane H. Gottesman Exhibition Hall.

- Collection History and Background text excerpted from the press release and exhibition catalog descriptions for "The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at The New York Public Library."

Related Resources

Alexander, Jonathan J. G., James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler. The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at The New York Public Library. (2005)

NYPL. "The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at The New York Public Library." (2005-2006) <http://www.nypl.org/research/calendar/exhib/hssl/hsslexhibdesc.cfm?id=354>

University of California, Berkeley. "The Digital Scriptorium." (c1996-2004) <http://www.digital-scriptorium.org>

Collection Data

Aesop (Author)
Gherardo, del Fora, ca. 1444-1497 (Illuminator)
Dates / Origin
Date Created: 1480 (Approximate)
Place: Florence
Library locations
Spencer Collection
Shelf locator: Spencer Collection Ms. 50
Miniatures (illuminations)
Ownership: Arms of the Medici in the miniature on f. 68. From the collections of Rev. Theodore Williams (sale, London, 1827); Sir Thomas Phillipps (sale, Sotheby's London, 1946). Acquired for Spencer at Sotheby's 1946 sale.
Content: 135 miniatures illustrating the fables. Figures in border on f. 1.
Content: 6-line gold opening initial on red and gold field. 3-line gold initials on red, green and blue fields. Border design in each left border; opening page with 3-margin border. Rubrics.
Content: According to J. Kaimowitz, the ms. originally had at least 134 ff; the first 54 and 5 subsequent folios are missing. Arms of Medici on f. 68; it is known that Piero de' Medici, Lorenzo's son, owned a Greek Aesop, but no conclusive proof that this is his.
Citation/reference: Fahy and Mctigue; Alexander; notes in dossier; Dictionary catalog.
Date: The date of this manuscript arises from the fact that it was copied from the edition printed in Milan, ca. 1480, by Bono Accursio.
Source note: The original ms. probably included the 'Vita Aesopi' on the first 54 folios (this work usually opened mss. of the fables); 134 complete and 6 partial fables are conserved, and 7 lost (27, 43, 67, 69, 78, 79, 145).
Citation/reference: More information to be found in the exhibition catalog: The splendor of the word : medieval and Renaissance illuminated manuscripts at the New York Public Library / Jonathan J.G. Alexander, James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler ; with the assistance of Elizabeth Moodey and Todor T. Petev.
Physical Description
Extent: Ff. ii + 75 + ii - 200 x 119 mm - .
Parchment , 20 lines on pages without miniatures; interlinear space 6mm, ruled in drypoint, some prickings visible. 5 single folios (signed stigma, i.e. first five quires &amp; part of 6th now missing), followed by seven quinternions
Type of Resource
Still image
Universal Unique Identifier (UUID): 9282a5e0-c6bf-012f-e655-58d385a7bc34
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